Moving towards the end of July, 2017 is still estimated to be an average to below-average year for WNV in South Dakota. At this time, we expect about 58 human cases in 2017. This forecast is based primarily on very low humidity, which is inhospitable to mosquitoes, and the many WNV-negative mosquito pools that are being reported throughout the state. The situation may change rapidly, and WNV may only be late this year, rather than below average. Transmission to human populations is still possible even where no positive pools have been found.